• Ecological restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been damaged, degraded or destroyed.” (Society of Ecological Restoration, 2004)
  • The objective of ecological rehabilitation is to re-establish the productivity and some, but not necessarily all, of the plant and animal species thought to be originally* present at a site. (For ecological or economic reasons the new habitat might also include species not originally present at the site). In time, the protective function and many of the ecological services of the original habitat may be re-established (FAO 2005).
  • The concept of landscape restoration tackles the broader range of issues and needs via a landscape-scale approach, “a planned process that aims to regain ecological integrity and enhance human well-being in deforested or degraded landscapes.” (WWF International 2007).
  • Land restoration: Reversing land degradation processes by applying soil amendments to enhance land resilience and restoring soil functions and ecosystem services (UNCCD, 2012).
  • Regeneration is often viewed as the growth or re-emergence of the native species in a place after it has been destroyed or degraded, resulting from the protection of an area from biotic interference. Regeneration may come about naturally or result from human intervention (CFIOR websites).
  • Reclamation aims to recover productivity (but little of the original biodiversity) at a degraded site. In time, the protective function and many of the original * ecological services may be re-established. Reclamation is often done with exotic species but may also involve native species. (WWF/IUCN 2000) n.b. Reclamation is also used for creating new land from the sea, the polders (WF).
  • Recovery of a habitat is linked to the ecological succession of a site. That is the site returning naturally to the state in which it had been before being degraded or destroyed without any intervention from humans (CFIOR websites).
  • Ecosystem gardening is a practise developed at the Gurukula Botanical Sanctuary for gathering, propagating and distributing endangered species and to create their respective microclimates with the aim of full biodiversity for tropical ecosystems with high levels of feature diversity and endemism. For this purpose indigenous women are trained to become ecosystem gardeners. In the future they aim to become a parataxonomy and ecosystem gardening training center.

Landscapes and initiatives:

Networks and databases:


  • Rewilding Europe aims to create 10 large European wilderness zones.
  • Trees for Life program by Alan Watson Featherstone in Scotland. In this program areas are protected against overgrazing and are left to 'rewild' without much human interference. In Alan's experience this works better than repopulating with with introduced tree-saplings, plants and wildlife.
  • Pan Parks foundation 240 thousand hectares
  • WWF 1 million hectares
  • Wild Europe creating wildlife corridors at European scale


University programs


Conservation Trust Funds

  • the Madagascar Biodiversity Fund > Established in 2005 and governed by an independent Board of Trustees, it now has a capital base of $50 million. The Fund is dispersing funds to protected areas across the country including both the national parks and, more recently, the new protected areas under management by NGOs and others. The Fund is also committed to increasing its capital base to ensure it can support increasing conservation needs for the long-term.
  • ecosystem_restoration.txt
  • Last modified: 2013-11-07 17:25
  • by theunkarelse