Sidenote 2 on 1.1

research notes for debrouillardise et coquetterie

It interest me to collecting data, facts and stories that contradicts the big narratives, that are puzzling, surprising, funny.

Little notes taken during my readings


-Folklore versus Cosmopolitarianism

Since end of the 19th Century desire of modernity made that most of women abandonned the european folkloric costumes.

Thirties : Part of Italian and Germand propoaganda : resurgence of interest for regional costume to express the identity of the nation.

Short influence of italian fascism in Haute Couture : 1935 Vogue : article on hat of the fascist milicia weared with a tailor. Fascist aesthetic exerted a fascination on fashion designers.

36 : references to german folkloric costume in french fashion collections (knitting, austrian flower embroideries, loden tailors). Austrian cloth seller Josef LANZ opens a shop in New York. Political refugee Marlène Dietrich makes his shop famous and popularizes the german folkloric costume in US.

-clothing as a sign of inclusion/exclusion of the Volksgemeinschaft

-Posters edited by Goebbels (magazines ‘Neuer Modenspiegel ; ‘Panorama de la Mode’) : nordic beauties in Trachtenkleidung (folkloric costume from Beiern)

self-sufficiency through the creation of artificial fibers/experimentations with substites drawing on recycling

Search for self-sufficiency through artificial fibers – to become independent of geographical, climate or political circumstances plus mass production imperatives : canna gentille growing naturally in some areas in Italy, to replace conifers (northern european forests) , from which cellullosis is extracted)) ; Chemical experiments intensified during the autarchic phase.

Cf. « Fashion under Fascism : behind the Black Shirt », by Eugenia Paulicelli, 2004 (some chapters are partly consultable on googlebooks)

! pg. 99 the intelligent fibers : from innovation to autarchy ! pg. 130 : conference of 1940 on National clothing and Autarchy, Turin.

IG FARBEN : Experimental production of artificial fabrics in order to make Germany independent from imports from abroad, and increase German production. A lot of research started in the pre war period, though will be commercialized after the war ; -Licence of a polyester developed in 1941 , and a polyeruthane (will become lycra) both sold to Dupont after the war. -1938 : PERLON

-1942 fiber PAN – - development of polyamide used for the production of parachutes in Germay – while in the US it is used for women underwear.

1939 : reintroduction of sericulture, to produce own silk (in 1806 Napoleon ordered the destruction of all the german sericultures to have a french monopoly)

« Histoire de l'IG-Farben (1905-1952), » by Jean-Philippe Massoubre, l’Harmattan, 2008.

! Germany already experimented with substitute fabrics during WWI (blocus from the English) : for example production of clothing out of paper fibers.

Chemist TODTENHAUPT elaborates a subsitute for wool out of CASEINE, (milk proteine), but the conflict stops before its commercialization.

1937 Germany invigorates the recycling movement : recycling of fur, cotton, linen, wool and even rayonne. 2 years later experimental fibers are tried out with : peelings of potatoes, envelopes are made out of corn, soja beans and rest waters remaining after the fabrication of margarine. To make wool and cotton last longer, some synthetic fibers are added. Quality is lowered) ; German uniforms are coloured with syntheticals, they decoulour on their skin, sometimes german soldiers are nicknamed ‘martians’.

Belgium – from CEGES Archive :

« Infirmières wallonnes de la Croix-Rouge allemande (DRK), 1943. - 15 photos - Photo n° 18120 L'heure de couture. Le linge est réparé. Une infirmière doit savoir tout faire. »

« La récupération des vieux papiers donne du travail à nos 62.000 ouvriers. Au centre de déchargement des ordures a lieu un premier triage pour récupérer le vieux papier.

« Comment on fait d'un vieux pull-over de la laine neuve. - Commencer par enlever les boutons les pressions ou les agrafes en faisant bien attention de ne pas couper dans le tricot. »

- fashion and nationalism – facism – war propaganda

Nazi and Fascist regime promoting a national fashion industry through promotion handicraft industry ; true rural identity, attempts to regulate the women body, facist valorization of the local.

Aryanisation : label ADEFA (association of german aryan clothing) ‘Ware au Arische Hand’. By 39 all clothing manufactures were ‘judenrein’.

Votre Beauté, mai 1940 : « Chaque femme de Paris est une vivante affiche de propagande (…) La fonction universelle de la Parisienne c‘est de rester coquette »

-Fashion affected by military strategy

Tenues d’abris anti aériens : with a zipper, can be quickly put over nightw ear. Importance of remaining fancy despite of the circumstances ! Kangourou pockets : no handbag needed Fluorescent shoes for during ‘black outs’ le ‘saut-en-cave’ de Robert Piguet in reversible wool ; Nouvelle couffure du West en London : ‘lab oucle du masque à gaz’

-Cultural Contestation / politicization of everyday life. See commnities of resilients : zazous, swingjugend,…

-Gender Ideology – manipulation of the women through fashion, dress as a state concern (disciplination of the bodies) – the Spectacle of the women parade

)( Women from german elite is reluctant to adopt the Gretchen style, prefering french fashion and cosmetics. So do Magda Goebbels and Emmy Goering, passionated by fashion, putting make up and going to jewish dressmakers.

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