Edible Gardening

••••• Experimental guide set up to live from city-gardens •••••

  • Based on guilds in permaculture
  • the 7 layers: { plant guilds }
  • native edible plants: applicable for the Netherlands and Belgium.
  • biodiversity


••• We want to make our ground more fertile ••• .

  • canopy layer (only for larger gardens, not on roofs, balconies, etc.)
  • low tree layer
  • shrub layer
  • herbaceous layer
  • rhizosphere
  • soil surface (ground cover)
  • vertical layer (climbers and vines)

more see plant_guilds

  • nitrogen (stikstof - n2)
  • nutrients (non mineral, mineral, soil)
  • mulch
  • pollination
  • protection from external threats….

more see plant guilds

This experimental edible set up is made in a garden in Amsterdam [14 x 8 meter].

  • We strive to make a garden with a focus on edible native species, but invasives are welcome aswell.
  • It is a selfhealing garden by many aromatic herbs and a big spectrum of plants which contagious diseases and extinguish carriers of infection.
  • We are mainly looking for plants which are perennials and/or seed themselves easily
  • Each plant in the guild should take care for at least one service.
  • Most nutricious are the fruit trees and the shrubs, and then the vegetables, and finally the herbs and edable flowers
  • All what written is nothing more then a guide from where you can make your own set ups.

  1. Are you edible?
  2. Do we want to eat you?
  3. Are you native or not, and do you want to live here?
  4. What sort of living conditions do you need (soil, sun, shade, care etc..)
  5. How do you multiply yourself?
  6. How - do you fit- in a guild?
  7. Who do you want to be your companions?

you can choose plants from every chapter underneath to create your own edible garden; to come to a collection of plants forming an interdependent whole.

The central elements

The central elements in this garden are for instance: an Apple tree, a Mulberry and an Elderberry. Those three trees do tolerate each other very well. The idea is to make a guild or community around each tree and over time these guilds can slowly blend into each other. Other possible trees are for instance: Pear, Cherry, Plum… more on fruit

Appletree - Appelboom - Malus domestica
An apple-tree plant community might include: daffodils, irises, or other early-flowering bulbs. While blooming under the fruit tree, they provide beauty for us and attract pollinators to the tree. Dill and onions planted under the drip line of the apple tree repel pests that are otherwise attracted to the tree. Beans, peas, or purple clovers fix soil nitrogen, improving the quality of the soil in which the tree is growing. Comfrey and borage are herbs with many human uses. In addition, they grow quickly and can be cut back and used as mulch around the tree.

Elderberry - Vlier- Sambucus (L.)
Plant near a compost heap as it assists in breakdown soil. Elderberry is a natural Antiseptic, the leaves encourage compost fermentation and makes excellent topsoil. The flowers are very attractive to insects and the fruit is very attractive to birds – pigeons hang upside down in autumn to pick the berrys. It’s a general insecticide, the flowers and berries make lovely wine, pancakes, juices etc.

“Wolff Mischung” is a special groundcover mixture for under fruittrees. The mixture consists many nutrients, gives protector for birds, attract bees and misleads verminous (ongedierte).
composition Wolff Mischung:
7,5% Alexandrijnse Klaver - Egyptian Clover - Trifolium alexandrinum (L.)
25% Esparcette - Holly Clover - Onobrychis viciifolia
7,5% Inkarnaatklaver - Italian Clover - Trifolium incarnatum (L.)
5% Perzische Klaver - Reversed Clover - Trifolium resupinatum (L.)
2,5% Rode Klaver - Red Clover - Trifolium pratense (L.)
10% Lucerne Klaver – Alfalfa - Medicago sativa (L.)
25% Wikken – Vetches - Vicia (L.)
10% Bijenmengsel - bee-mixture
7,5% Kruidenmengsel – herb-mixture


All vines underneath area edible (exept the Whiseria but which is a good nitrogen fixer) Climbers can protect the cental elements

  • Passionflower - Passiebloem – Passiflora caerulea
  • Bramble - Braam - Rubus fruticosus (L.)
  • Grapevine - Druif - Vitis vinifera (L.): goes well with beans, mustard, tansy (boerenwormkruid), tomato and yarrow (duizendblad))
  • Wild Rose - Wilde Roos: goes well with chives(bieslook), marigold, garlic, horseradish (mierikswortel), lavender, lemonbalm, nasturium (oostindische kers), parsley, parsnip (pastinaak). hybrids and cultivators are less usefull. (available at the Heliant)
  • Kiwi (not native)
  • Hop - Hop - Humulus lupulus: perennial: hostplant for the Peacock butterfly and the Gehakkelde Aurelia. The young sprouts are edible. (available at the Heliant)
  • Honeysuckle - Wilde kamerfoelie - Lonicera periclymenum (L.)
  • Perenneal Pea – Lathyrus gladiolus: nitrogen fixer
  • Jasmin - Jasmijn – Jasminum officinale
  • Wisteria – Wisteria floribunda: (not edible – nitrogen fixer).

annual climbers seeding themselves easily:

  • Cucumber - Komkommer – Cucumis radius: grown as annual (bv Gele Komkommer van vergeten eten)
  • Scarlet runner beans - Pronk bonen – Phaseolus coccineus: Tot dit geslacht behoren o.a. : pronkboon, snijboon, slabonen, stamslaboon of stambonen, citroenbonen of droge bonen. Actually all beans are good nitrogen fixers
  • Nasturium - Oostindische kers - Tropaeolum majis
  • Pea - Erwt – Pisum sativum – nitrogen fixer
  • Squash - Pompoen – Cucurbita spp, grown as annual - (De Bolster has the tasty Hokkaido pompkin (Uchiki Kuri) seeds)


in progress… Early flowering shrubs (currant) that attract insects and later on berries that attract insects and birds - our natural allies in pest control.

  • Rode bes - vaccinium vitis idaea -
  • Witte bes
  • Zwarte bes
  • raspberry - Framboos - Rubus idaeus 'Autumn Bliss'
  • Gooseberry – Kruisbes - Ribes -(Hinnonmaki Rod)
  • Blueberry - Bosbes - Vaccinium (L.:
  • Brambles - Braam- - Rubus fruticosus (L.)
  • Wild Rozes: like hondsroos -rosa canina and egelantier roos - rosa rubiginosa or Behaarde struweelroos – rosa caesia (good for aginst the wall) in de nazomer trekken de rozebottels vogels aan. Plant ze tussen stevige struiken, waar in kunnen leunen. They aswell provide habitat for wasp: Rozes goes well with : Afrikaantje, knoflook, lavendel, ui.

more see fruit: Dutch and Belgium places to find unusual& uncultivated fruits

Green manures or Covercrops / Groenbemesters

Cover crops act as a living mulch: to build and hold soil and to smother weeds. They range from long-growing perennials to short-term green manures meant to be slashed in place (mulch). Their leaves shield to soil from hammering rains and sun, and carpet the carpet the earth in fall with nutritious, humus building litter. Their roots drive deep into the soil, loosening the earth, drawing up nutrients, and placing organic matter deep in the ground.

The more varied covercrops (5- 10 species of which 60% are nitrogen-fixing crops) we plant: the more diversity in the soil’s life; this will subdue disease and can serve multiple functions: it can build humus, add nitrogen, mine minerals, bust up heavy soil and attract a wide array of helpfull insects.

There are old farm texts that list more then 15 varieties in their cover crops including 4 grass species – (grasses add carbon and build structure in the soil) , five clovers, Yarrow, Duizenblad - Achillea millefolium, Fennel - Foeniculum vulgare – Venkel, Dandelion -Taraxacum officinale – Paardebloem and more…

Nitrogin-fixing crops / Stikstofbindende planten

When building soil or feeding hungry plants, go heavy on nitrogen fixers. Nitrogin fixers come in all sizes from clover to shrubs, to trees such as black locust, alder, and acacia.

Many legumes, herbs and not to forget weeds! improve the soil by adding suitable nitrogen via their roots, surrounding plants then can absorb these nutrients (nitrogen). Experts both modern and ancient recommend that legumes should be mulched (slashed and leave it at the spot) before the seeds set, because the plant drains nitrogen from stem and leaves at maturity and concentrates in the seeds.

A to rich nitrogen fuel can actually deplete more organic matter than the cover crops adds. So its best to balans out the covercrops with 10% to 40 % non nitrogen-fixing plants.

All members of the Pea family (legumes)/ Fabacea / Vlinderbloemigen - are nitrogen-fixers and besides they all have a taproot to penetrate deep into the ground.

You can sow legumes seeds all year round. For specific legumes species see ‘Vegetables’

All clovers are great nitrogen fixers, attract beneficial insect, act as a mulch and provide trace minerals. They can be hacked down early in spring and in the mid till late summer:

  • Berseem Clover – Alexandrijnze klaver - Trifolium alexandrinum (L.), (annual)
  • Crimson Clover - Inkarnaatklaver - Trifolium incarnatum (L.): vorstgevoelig, best to mix it for instance with Vetch, rogge & Phacelia).
  • Red Kenland Clover - Rode klaver - Trifolium pratense – edible and perennial and native (good for crop rotation),
  • White Dutch Clover - Witte klaver – Trifolium repens (perennial and native and edible) (het ras rector is zeer geschikt)
  • Strawberry clover - Aardbeiklaver – frifolium tragiferum – native and perennia1
  • Blue Lupin -Blauwe Lupinen - Lupinus angustifolius (L.); for heavy grounds
  • Vetch - Wikke - Vicia – (annual) provide trace minerals, mulch and nitrogen, also usefull for insects, its a climber best to mix it with for instance: haver of rogge, lupine en phacelia)
  • Luzerne -Alfalfa - Medicago sativa - you can try aswell, they have a long taproot with which they can penetrate deep down in the ground to get minerals, which otherwise are not accesable for other plants, they love dry, fertile and a calcareous [kalkrijke] grounds - (perennial, edible )
  • Fenugreek - Fenegriek - trigonella foenumgraecum – opens heavy soils (edible) (annual)

[dont use the plants above before or after farming legumes because it increases the formation of moulds.]

If you mix white clover and the vegetable seeds; it will act as a living mulch, enriching the soil, keeping the ground moist and well aerated and hold back even the strong weeds as bijvoet - Artemisia vulgaris. As with the vegetables, it is important to choose the right time to sow the clover seed. (Late summer or fall sowing is the best, the roots develop during the cold months, giving the clover a jump on the annual spring grasses. Or you can also sow early in spring. Once the clover takes hold, you do not need to sow it again or 5 or 6 years.

Make sure you don’t have allopathic (die het tegeover gewilde effect bewerkstelligen) plants (plants that release toxins to nihilist the growth of neary plants) | like the Jerusalem Artichoke

Cabbage Family /Kruisbloemingen

  • White Mustard - Gele mosterd – White Mustard -Sinapis alba (L.): Annual, have extensive roots that punch through hard subsoil, aerating the earth and adding humus as the roots die, attracts insects
  • Mustard – Mosterd - Brassica spp- : (annual)
  • Green radish - Bladrammanas (radijs) - Raphanus sativus (L.)aswell good groundcover
  • Radish - Radijs/Ramenas – Raphanus radius. Radished and daikon grow well in heavy soil; let them flower, and then snap them off at ground level. Each daikon will break up the clay and then rot, leaving quite an amount of organic matter in the soil
  • Oil-seed Rape - Bladkool - Brassica napus subsp. oleifera ((DC.) Metzg.)
  • Knopherik – Wild radish - Raphanus raphanistrum or sativius -wilde radijs (heeft Flora)
  • Turnip - Meiraap - Brassica rapa subsp.
  • Rapeseed - Rapen – Brassica napus; opens heavy soil (annual)
  • Turnip, Rabe – Koolzaad/Knolraap/Koolraab – Brassica napus
  • Gold of Pea – Huttentut (of boterzaad) - Camelina sativa (annual - edible heeft Flora)

[dont use the plants above before or after farming cabbages because the moulds which leave the cabbage family behind cant be broken down, but will be intensified]

Groundcovers acting as living mulch

Quick spreading plants will make a continuous living mulch: everytime you chop them down and leave the residu at its place: it will feed the ground.

  • Wild strawberrie - Bosaardbei - Fragaria vesca: aswell good groundcover and good living mulch.
  • Comfrey - Smeerwortel - Comfries (symphytum spp):the leaves are edible, the roots are nutriënt hounds, they produce much biomass. (they can be hacked down 5 times a year, provide trace minerals
  • Carpet weed - Zenegroen (kruipend) - Ajuga reptans L.
  • Lungwort - Longkruid - Pulmonaria is de beste bodembedekker voor vochtige schaduw.
  • Ground Ivy - Hondsdraf - Glechoma hederacea/
  • Mints - Munt - Mentha (L.)

Other green manures

  • Phacelia - Phacelia - Phacelia (Juss.); is met geen ander ras verwant daarom heel geschikt – voor alle gronden geschikt – vorstgevoelig- trekt bijen aan – levert zeer goede humus, en is tevens een bodemonstsmetter.
  • Spurreys - Spurrie - Spergula (L.); (heeft Flora, voor zanderige grond zaaien van april-augustes goede bodembedekker)
  • Borage (tailworth) - Berganie/komkommerkruid - Borago officinalis (L.) - voor zwaardere gronden mooie bloem voor ijsklontjes…
  • Sunflower - Zonnebloem - Helianthus annuus: goede combi met Boekweit (heeft Flora) -zanderige grond en bijengewas gaat het beste samen met ander gewas)
  • Chicory - Wilde Chirochei - Chicorium intimus: favourite by insects and opens heavy soil, by its long taproot, which seeks out pockers of potassium, sulfur, calcium, magnesium and other minerals. (perennial, edible)
  • Common Chervil - Kervel echte - Anthriscus cerefolium

Nutrient Accumulators

  • Yarrow - Duizendblad - Achillea (L.)
  • Chamomile - Kamille echte - Matricaria recutita
  • Fennel - Venkel - Foeniculum vulgare; tweejarig
  • Chirory -(Wilde Chirochei) - Chicorium intimus
  • Dandelions Paardenbloem – Taraxacum officinale (perennial)
  • and many more…

Most of these plants are considered as weeds; and they make their living as pioneer species: tough sundependent, fatgrowing and short lived.These early colonists invade bare or depleted soils. where one of there rolls is to accumulate nutrients in their roots and leaves. Each fall these plants die and rot, pumping a fat load of minerals into the soil. The enriched earth is then ready for the next successionary phase of less emphemerial, more fastidious plants such as perennial herbs, shrubs and trees. succession is the progression from bare earth to short annual weeds to perennials.

One can intercrop nutrient accumulators in between one's crops or cover bare earth for two years with nutrient accumulotors before planting fruit trees etc.

Pestcontrollers/under and above the ground

Some plants secrete compounds that repel a few specific pests in the soil or above. Examples are

  • Tagetes - Africaantjes: very strong; preferred food for spider mites; function as a sacrificial plant. (heeft Flora)
  • Marigolds - Goudsbloem - Calendula officinalis: preferred food for spider mites; function as a sacrificial plant.
  • Wild marigold - Tagetes minuta: repels soil nematodes
  • Nasturiums - Oostindische kers - Tropaeolum (L.): it deters white flies for all grounds: good groundcover and/ or climber (Flora)
  • Elderberry - Vlier – Sambucus


The roots of trees and shrubs can go deep in the underground and even throught the underlying stoneground to get from there minerals and to suck water, and to make this available for themselves and their neighbours who don’t have these long roots.

  • all members of Pea family / Vlinderbloemigen do have a taproot to penetrate deeper in the ground.
  • All Root vegetables are also usefull.

When soil is compacted or clayey, plants are excellent tools to restore tilth and fluffiness. Species with deep, soil busting taproots are perfelt for the job. These include:

  • Daikon- Rettich - Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus
  • Chirory-(Wilde Chirochei) - Chicorium intimus
  • Comfrey - Smeerwortel - comfries (symphytum spp)
  • Artichoke - Jerusalem and Chinese - Purperen Artisjok (van vergeten eten: can be an allophatic plant! - can be perennialized
  • Dandelion - Paardenbloem – Taraxacum officinale (perennial)

Others don’t have a single taproot but instead thrust a massive, fibrous rootsystem deep into the erath to accomplish the same soil loosening:

  • Mustard - Mosterd -Sinapis nigra
  • Rapeseed - Rapen – Brassica napus; opens heavy soil (annual)
  • Alfafa - Luzerne - Medicago (also a good nitrogen fixer)

You can use these plants either of two strategies; sow them into afuture orchard or garden to work a year of two before the final planting or intercrop them among beds or under trees to continually break up the soil.

Plants attracting insects and birds for pestcontrol

Biodiveristy –is one of the main strategies to prefend pests

  • Umbelliferea (bv. carrot family, dille, anijs, wortels,)
  • Cruciferea (cabbage family)
  • Asteracea (Aster-sunflower family)
  • Umbels -look familie (bv kraal look =zwart) en werken zuiverend
  • Rosacea provide habitat for wasp: who provide predatory pest control.



Bees are the best pollinators there are… (I read somewhere…)

source: http://www.hofmanap.nl

Mixture especially for bees and other insect. Composed from a very old recepy and still used by bee-keepers. It creates aswell quicly flowerfields

  • Buckwheat -Boekweit – Fagopyrum esculentum: annual; white - pink; 15-60 cm
  • Musterd - Mosterd -Sinapis nigra - (zwarte en inheemse heeft Flora0: annual; yellow; 30-80 cm
  • Caraway - Karwij echte - Carum cavi; tweejarig, white; 30-60 cm
  • Cornflower - Korenbloem – Centaurea cyanus; annual
  • Dille - Dille - Anethum graveolens; annual; yellow, 60-120 cm
  • Borage - Bernagie – Borago officinalis; annual; blue; 60-90 cm
  • Musk mallow - Kaasjeskruid -Muskuskaasjeskruid (en groot kaasjeskruid) -– Malva moschata (en Malva sylvestris)
  • Poppy - Klaproos - Papaver
  • Marigolds - Goudsbloem -Calendula officinalis
  • Crown Daisies - Margriet - Chrysanthemum (L.)
  • Redish - Bladrammenas (radijs)- Raphanus sativus (L.)
  • Phacelia - Phacelia (Juss.)

and some more edible bee attractors

  • Goldenrod - Guldenroede echte - Solidago virgaurea
  • Brambles - Braam - Rubus (L.)
  • Appel
  • Paardebloem - Taraxacum officinale
  • Coriander -Koriander – Coriandrum sativum; annual, white/pink; 30-50 cm.

all sort of clover attract bees and these are edible:

  • Red clover - Rode klaver - Trifolium pratense
  • Alfalfa - Luzerne Klaver - Medicago sativa: perennial; blue/purple sometimes white; 30-80 cm

Butterfly attractors

  • Lemonbalm - Citroenmelisse - Melissa officinalis: (Flora)
  • Garden Thyme - Echte Tijm -Thymus vulgaris: (Flora)
  • Hyssop – Hyssop - Hyssopus Officinalis: (Flora)
  • Borage (tailworth) - Berganie - Borago officinalis (L.): (Flora) nice flowers for icecubes…
  • Nasturiums - Oostindische kers – Tropaeolum (L.)
  • Rosemary - Rozemarijn – Rosmarinus officinalis (L.)
  • Sage - Salie echte - Salvia officinalis
  • Fennel - Venkel - Foeniculum vulgare: (Flora)
  • Marjoram/Oregano - Marjolein (wilde/Oregano -Origanum vulgare
  • White Mustard - Gele mosterd -Sinapis alba (L.): aswell for greenmanuring

And some more edible butterfly & bee-plants

source: http://home.hetnet.nl/~robjeanet/overzicht_planten.htm

  • Yarrows - Duizendblad- - Achillea millefolium, vast, wit of roze, 15-50 cm
  • Anise Hyssop -Dropplant - Anise Hyssop - Agastache foeniculum: perennial, paars/violetblauw, 60-90 cm
  • Carpetweed - Zenegroen - Ajuga reptans
  • Sunflower - Zonnebloem - Helianthus annuus
  • Viper’s-Bugloss - Slangenkruid - Echium russicum: tweejarig, blue, 25-100 cm
  • Purple-loosestrifes - Kattestaart - Lythrum salicaria-
  • Cat-mints - Kattekruid - Nepeta cataria (A)
  • Cowslip - Sleutelbloem - Gulden Primula veris (B)
  • Burnets - Pimpernel – -Sanguisorbia officinalis en minor
  • Scabiouses - Duifkruid - - Chenopodium botrys: annual, green, 10-50 cm
  • Valerian - Valeriaan - Valeriana officinalis



In permaculture its the best to have vegetables which:

  • are perennials (overblijvend) and/or
  • seed themselves easily
  • some deep rooting plants, which will cultivate the underground

Many interesting vegetables are available at http://www.vergeteneten.nl/ or or at Vreeken (voor losse zakjes zaden) https://www.vreeken.nl/ or from Flora http://www.wildebertram.nl/

A good combination are for instance: carrots and onion, strawberry and garlic.

Self seeding Annuals

  • Garden Cress – Tuinkers - Lepidium sativum
  • Italiaanse Raket
  • Self seeding annual climbers veg. see:climbers
  • Arugula - Eruca vesicaria subsp. Sativa – Mosterdkruid of Rucola (kruisbloemenfamilie)
  • Chard - Beta vulgaris – Biet of Snijbiet
  • Red mustard -
  • Lettuce - Lactuca sativa – Echte sla (composieten familie)

Perennial vegetables

A perennial food garden can contain a wide variety of crops, and you can have a very low maintanance. some of them `I still have to research…

  • Asparagus, aspergus (perennial)
  • Chard, Beetroot - Biet, Snijbiet -Beta vulgaris (L.); (most problably they are self seeding)
  • Wilde Bietjes en Witte krootjes: (vergeten eten most problably they are self seeding)
  • Pink Purslane - Winter Purslane - Postelein (winter: (Flora)
  • Spinach - Spinazie (wilde)- Spinacia oleracea: (flora)
  • Comfrey - Smeerwortel - Comfries (symphytum spp)
  • Lovage - Lavas or Maggiplant - Levisticum officinale; (also used as veg.) perennial (schermbloemigen familie)
  • Herb Patience - Spinaziezuring - Rumex patientia (L.)
  • Rhubarb - Rabarber - Rheum rhabarbarum(perennial)
  • Fennel - Venkel - Foeniculum vulgare; tweejarig
  • Winterkers (vergeten eten)
  • Zevenblad -Ground Elder - Aegopodium (L.)
  • Sweet Cicely - Kervel roomse - Myrrhis odorataeen: welig groeiende (vaste plant -flora)

Legumes – Peulvruchten/Bonen

Legumes (peulvruchten - bonen) binden stikstof uit de lucht en zijn daardoor ook zeer geschikt als groenbemesters en voor het produceren van plantaardige compost. Its good to seed all year around legumes. Long beans attrack stinkbugs (wantsen. plant luizen), so also funstion as a sacrificial plants.

  • Wintertuinbonen (vergeten eten)
  • Aguadulce - Malse peulen - Carouby de Maussane (vergeten eten)
  • Wonderboontjes Merveille de Paris (vergeten eten)
  • Knoebelbuenke (vergeten eten)
  • Boerentenen (vergeten eten)
  • Europese Sojabonen (vergeten eten)
  • Peulen Corne de Belier (vergeten eten)
  • Paarse Spekbonen (vergeten eten)
  • Heilig Boontje, (vergeten eten)
  • De tuinboon - (Vicia faba)
  • sperzie boneen
  • snijbonen
  • bruine bonen
  • doperwten
  • groene erwten
  • Fava bean - Tuinboon – Vicia faba (annual)
  • Pea - Pisum sativum – Erwt (annual)
  • Scarlet Running Beans - Phaseolus coccineus – Pronkboon (vlinderbloemige familie) can they handle our winters..(perennial)
  • Groundplum Milkvetch - Hokjes peul - Astragalus Crassicarpus or Astragalus glycyphyllos: native perennial (Flora).(vlinderbloemige familie)

Cabbages – Kolen

Make sure you don't plant other plants from the Cabbage Family /Kruisbloemingen in the same place before seeding or after harvesting because the moulds which leave the cabbage family behind can't be broken down, but will be intensified]

  • Green Radish - Bladrammanas (radijs) - Raphanus sativus (L.)(goede bodembedekker),
  • Oil-seed Rape - Bladkool - Brassica napus subsp. oleifera ((DC.) Metzg.)
  • Turnip - Meiraap - Brassica rapa subsp.
  • Winterbroccoli (vergeten eten)
  • Nine star-broccoli must be picked before it set seeds or it may die but its a perennial
  • White Sprouting (vergeten eten)
  • Victoriaanse Kool (vergeten eten)
  • Wittekool (vergeten eten)
  • Brunswijker Platte Kortpoot (vergeten eten)
  • Spruitjes ‘Groninger Stiekema’ (vergeten eten)
  • Rode Spruitjes (perennial)
  • Sea Kale - Zeekool - Cramble Maratima (vergeten eten)(perennial) (kruisbloemig fam)
  • Palmkool (vergeten eten)
  • Slobber- of Smeltkool (Bloemendaalse Gele); (vergeten eten)
  • Brassica oleracea – broccoli – kruisbloemfamielei (perennial)


  • Bataviasla
  • Aardbeispinazie (Flora)
  • Italiaanse roodlof
  • Barbarakruid (Flora),
  • Bloedrood Bietjesblad (vergeten eten)
  • Bruinrode Jaarrondsla (vergeten eten)
  • Romaanse sla (vergeten eten)
  • Veldsla -Cornalad - Valerianella (Mill.){locusta} reseeds itself (Flora)
  • Buckler-Leaved Sorrel, Rumex acetosa, -Rucola, (self- seeding)
  • Rocket - Turkish Wild Rocket - Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa ((Mill.) Thell.)
  • Bonenkruid - Winter Savory –- Satureja (L.) (flora)
  • Kardoen (distel) – Cardoon - Cynara cardunculus (Flora)
  • Good-King-Henry – Brave hendrik - Chenopodium bonus-henricus (perennial)
  • French Sorrel -Spaanse zuring-Rumex scutatus (perennial - Flora)
  • Common Sorrel - Veldzuring - Rumex acetosa (flora)
  • Veldzuring -Common & French Sorrel (Flora) (perennial)
  • Musk Mallow & Malva Moschata - Muskuskaasjeskruid (en groot kaasjeskruid) en Malva sylvestris: (also used as veg.)
  • Vijfdelig Kaasjeskruid - Malva alcea; perennial (flora)
  • Dandelions - Paardenbloem – Taraxacum officinale (perennial)
  • Myrrhis odorata - Tripmadam - Sedum reflexum (A): perennial (flora)

Roots and Tubers (knollen)

By leaving a section of the root, or allowing the plant to grow large enough so send out smaller roots, some species can be perennialized.

Radish and Turnip (raap) are strong enough to copete succesfully with the weeds; leave a few unharvested to seed themselves year after year. Radish is doing well in the shade when you sow them late)

  • Zeeuwse Zeempjes (gele radijs) (van vergeten eten)
  • Winterharde Spaanse radijsjes
  • Paarse Franse winterradijsjes
  • Artichokes - Jerusalem and Chinese - Purperen Artisjok (van vergeten eten: can be an allophatic plant! - can be perennialized
  • Carrots: will come by themselves year after year
  • Hamwortel (vergeten eten)
  • Haverwortel (vergeten eten)
  • Edible Burdock - Grote Klit/Klis or Klitwortel – Arctium lappais; can be perennialized
  • Spaanse Kastanjewortel (vergeten eten)
  • Knolkervel (vergeten eten)
  • Pastinaak (prachtige bloemen), Pastinaca sativa (tweejarig) (Flora)
  • Schorseneer (Morgenster geel) | Tragopogon pratensis -tweejarig……..(Flora)
  • Peen - daucus carota (Flora) tweejarig
  • Sweet potato - Zoete aardappel, - once planted they will come up in the same place every year and never be overgrown by weeds, just leave a few in the ground when you harvest.
  • Milaanse raapjes (witte roodkop) (vergeten eten
  • Raapjes Teltower (vergeten eten)
  • Witte raapjes (vergeten eten)
  • Friese Knossen (koolraap) (vergeten eten)
  • Wortelpeterselie (vergeten eten - taste delicious)
  • Chicory - Chichorei - Chicorium intimus; can be perennialized
  • Horseradish - Mierikswortel - Armoracia rusticana

Bulbs & Onion family

Bulbs and herbs can breakdown soil, they will come by themselves year after year.

Leeks for instance can be perennialized: ifset flowers, many small bulblets will form at the base. If you pull only the main stem and bulb, the bulblets can grow the following season.

  • Welsh Onion -Stengellui of waalse ui - Allium fistulosum ……..Flora
  • Wild Garlic - Kraailook - Allium vineale (Flora)
  • Egyptian Onion - Boomuien (Egyptische ajuin)- Allium cepa 'Proliferum': set shallotlike bulbs above the ground on stems
  • Daslook ‘Ramsons’
  • Garlic; By leaving a section of the root, or allowing the plant to grow large enough so send out smaller roots, they can be perennialized
  • Shalots; By leaving a section of the root, or allowing the plant to grow large enough so send out smaller roots, they can be perennialized


Edible flowers

Some specific flowers I would like to add to the garden underneath some personnal choices:

  • Balloon Flower - Ballonklokje - Platycodon grandiflorus: just because its a nice flower (Flora)
  • Common Valerian - Valeriaan - Common Valerian - Valeriana officinalis- (Flora)
  • Bergamot - Bergamot - Monarda didyma
  • Angelica - Engelwortel - - Angelica sylvestris -kan in lichte schaduw en zandgrond- prachtige lichrgroene bereklauwachtige plant 90- 180 cm ..(Flora) –recommended!
  • Blessed Thistle -Gezegende distel - Cnicus benedictus (gele kern)
  • 3 Urenbloem
  • Wild Basil - Borstelkrans -Satureja vulgaris (A)
  • IJsbloem
  • Speedwells - Ereprijs - Veronica officials: has nice flowers


Underneath one can find herbs which are in general applicable in dutch/belgium guilds: herbs with “long taproot” can absorp unavailable nutriënts and when you cut them down they provide these nutriënts to the guild.

source: www.permacultuurnederland.org/planten.php www.self-willed-land.org.uk/permaculture/plant_guilds.htm, all seeds avialable at Flora: www.wildebertram.nl

  • Chives -Bieslook (gewone en Chinese) -Allium schoenoprasum - (perennial)
  • Tansy - Boerenwormkruid - Tanacetum vulgare:perennial, geplant tussen rijen wortelen in de groentetuin helpt hij tegen de wortelvlieg.
  • Wild Strawberrie - Bosaardbei - - Fragaria vesca - bodembedekker
  • Lemonbalm - Citroenmelisse – Melissa officinalis: vlinderpant
  • Yarrows - Duizendblad – - Achillea millefolium: perennial
  • Scurvygrasses - Echt lepelblad - Cochlearia officinalis: Tweejarige or perennial, N: Kruisbloemenfamilie, E: Cabbage Family
  • Garden Thyme - Echte tijm - -Thymus vulgaris
  • Agrimony - Agrimonie gewone - Agrimonia eupatoria
  • Goats Rue - Galega - Galega officinalis
  • Shirley Poppy - Gewone klaproos -Papaver rhoeas
  • Marigolds - Goudsbloem -Calendula officinalis
  • Marsh-Mallow - Heemst echte - Althea officinalis (A) N: Heemst, E: Marsh-mallows,
  • Hyssop – Hyssop - Hyssopus Officinalis
  • Figwort - Knopig Helmkruid - Scrophularia nodosa
  • Feverfew - Moederkruid - Tanacetum parthenium
  • Mosterd Zwarte - Sinapis nigra
  • Mosterd Inheems
  • Lavendel – Lavenders - Lavendula angustifolia
  • Garlic Mustard - Look-zonder-look - Alliaria petiolata
  • Ox-Eye Daisy - Margriet Gewone - -Leucanthemum vulgare
  • Milk Thistle - Mariadistel - Silybum marianum
  • Marjoram - Marjolein - Origanum vulgare (perennial)
  • Meadowsweet - Moerasspirea - Filipendula ulmaria
  • Biting Stonecrop - Muurpeper -Sedum acre
  • Green Alkanet - Ossentong - entaglottis sempervirens: ….Flora heeft aleen Italiaanse ossentong (Anchusa azura) of gewone ossentong (Anchusa officials)P
  • Salad Burnet - Pimpernel - Sanguisorba minor (Scop.)
  • Peppermint - Pepermunt - Mentha ×piperita: (Mentha is capable to spread itself easily so it function aswell for a constant layer of living mulch)
  • Parsley - Peterselie -Petroselinum sativum: perennial
  • (Hamburgse)-Krulpeterselie: very good to cultivate the underground and can grow in the shadow
  • Camomile - Kamille echte – - Matricaria recutita
  • Sage - Salie echte - Salvia officinalis (perennial)
  • Cowslip - Sleutelbloem gulden - Primula veris (B): perennial
  • Stinkende Gouwe - Swallow Worth - Chelidonium majus
  • Thymes - Tijm wilde - Thymus serpyllum
  • Ladys Mantle - Vrouwenmantel - Alchemilla mollis
  • Sunflower - Zonnebloem - Helianthus annuus
  • Zwartmoeskervel - Smyrnium olusatrum
  • Soapwort - Zeepkruid - Saponaria officials
  • Oregano/Wilde Marjoram - Wilde Marjolein/Oregano - Origanum vulgareperennila (flora)

  • edible_gardening.txt
  • Last modified: 2013-04-26 07:58
  • by alkan